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Results tagged “ranunculaceae”

May 16, 2014: Anemone blanda

A short entry from Taisha today, who writes:

A few weeks ago, I spotted a nice pop of purple (a colour that usually catches my eye) tucked away behind the Garden's amphitheatre. A closer look revealed it was Anemone blanda. In the Ranunculaceae, Anemone blanda is also known as the Grecian windflower or winter windflower. The genus Anemone is composed of about 120 species of perennials found mostly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Within the genus, members can be divided into three groups: woodland and alpine pasture species that flower in the spring, Mediterranean or Central Asia species with early summer blooms, and larger herbaceous species that flower later summer into autumn.

Anemone blanda, is a herbaceous perennial native to southeast Europe and Turkey. This species is valued for its daisy-like appearance in the spring. The winter windflower is a spreading species that is great for the garden and prefers well-drained soil with partial sun--making it good to plant under deciduous trees which can help provide its preferred conditions.

Apr 18, 2014: Delphinium luteum

Delphinium luteum

Another entry from Taisha today, who writes:

Delphinium luteum, known commonly as the yellow larkspur, is photographed here accompanied by an Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna). This capture was submitted to the Botany Photo of the Day Flickr Pool by frequent contributor Sandy Steinman@Flickr. This photo was taken on April 11 in Regional Parks Botanic Garden in Berkeley California. Thanks for sharing, Sandy!

A member of the Ranunculaceae, Delphinium luteum is, like many members of the family, an herbaceous perennial. In the wild, the species is found on steep, rocky outcrops within the coastal sage scrub plant community of Sonoma and Marin Counties. This species has fleshy basal leaves and cornucopia-shaped yellow flowers; these have a posterior sepal elongated into a spur. Plants bloom from March through May, and the flowers are pollinated by visiting hummingbirds. Despite being self-compatible, seed set is much higher when outcrossing occurs.

Delphinium luteum exists naturally in fewer than a dozen populations, including some located on the privately-owned Larkspur Hill and Larkspur Rock. Delphinium luteum is listed by the US Endangered Species Act as endangered, with a similar status at the state level (Delphinium luteum on the CNPS Inventory). The yellow larkspur is threatened due to rock quarrying activities, overcollection, residential development, and sheep grazing. Fortunately, Delphinium luteum is easily grown in cultivation, with ex situ populations maintained by the University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley and the California Native Plant Society (in at least a couple sites as of 2002).

Feb 13, 2014: Helleborus x hybridus (Royal Heritage Strain)

Helleborus x hybridus (Royal Heritage Strain)

Taisha is the author and photographer for today's entry. She writes:

Helleborus x hybridus (Royal Heritage Strain) is a welcome harbinger of spring here at UBC Botanical Garden, blooming now in the European Woodland section of the E.H. Lohbrunner Alpine Garden. Because they often flower in mid-winter, members of this genus are commonly named Christmas or Lenten roses. They are not true roses, belonging instead to the buttercup family or Ranunculaceae--a family containing many early-spring flowering species.

Helleborus is a genus of about twenty herbaceous perennial species, most of which are grown for their ornamental value. Helleborus x hybridus (Royal Heritage Strain) is a hybrid strain of seed with a wide variety of colours and tones in the sepals of the nodding blossoms. Leathery serrated leaves subtend the flowers and are spread along the thick stem.

Enjoying the sights of early blooms is one thing, but one can also wonder about the reasons behind early-spring blossoms. Phenology in plants is the study of lifecycle events (like flowering) and how the timing of such events are influenced by climate and environmental conditions. These conditions could include such things as temperature, length of day, elevation, disturbance, and competition from neighbours. Despite the potential drawbacks to blooming early such as tissue damage from fluctuating and sub-zero temperatures or few active pollinators, there are some adaptive advantages to flowering a little earlier than other adjacent plants. For example, early blooming plants may have increased exposure to light in the early days of the year before deciduous trees leaf out and other species grow up around it. This is particularly advantageous for hellebores, which are generally woodland species.

With regard to pollinators in the late winter or early spring: yes, it is likely that only a few are active. However, those few only have a limited amount of flowers to choose from and visit, so the advantage to being an early-spring flowering species is that there are few other competitors attempting to attract pollinators. For Helleborus spp., the number of insect visits (often bumblebees or Bombus spp.) is primarily determined by flower display and density. Evidence also suggests that early blossoms favor out-crossing. With fewer overall blossoms in early spring, pollinators must travel greater distances and therefore disperse genes over greater distances. Although the flowers of Helleborus are functionally hermaphroditic (protogynous) and self-compatible, a little pollen from a flower farther away may result in progeny that have additional frost- or disease-resistance.

Oct 10, 2013: Anemone x hybrida 'Andrea Atkinson'

Anemone x hybrida 'Andrea Atkinson'

The photograph and write-up today are both courtesy of Taisha. She writes:

Today's photo is Anemone x hybrida 'Andrea Atkinson'. This photo was taken in early September here at the UBC Botanical Garden. It is still possible to see some of these fall-blooming anemones in the Garden, as they are known for having many weeks of autumn bloom (see the Chicago Botanic Garden's Plant Evaluation Notes on Fall-Blooming Anemones (PDF)).

Autumn arrived a couple weeks ago locally and Vancouverites can certainly feel it! The air is crisp and the days are both cooler in temperature and shorter in duration. Although the sky here can often be grey at this time of year, one can still seek out a bit of colour in the garden. Along with other fall garden flowers such as chrysanthemums, dahlias and autumn-crocuses, one can also find the so-called Japanese anemones (though not native to Japan! - see Patrick's Garden blog post about The Beguiling Japanese Anemone). Although this cultivar isn't particularly colourful apart from its yellow centres, it is attractive with its sometimes nodding flowers that are set upon slender and branching ~1m high stems. This anemone is fairly elastic in terms of its growing conditions. According to the Royal Horticulture Society, this cultivated taxon will grow in either full or partial sun at any aspect and will tolerate a variety of soil types, as long as they are allowed to dry out after watering. This cultivar can spread easily and naturalize once established by means of spreading rhizomes. The RHS also notes propagation is either by root cuttings or by division in the spring or autumn.

May 10, 2013: Clematis cirrhosa

Clematis cirrhosa

Today's entry was both photographed and written by Taisha. She writes:

To highlight tomorrow's upcoming plant sale and event, A Growing Affair, I chose a plant that will be included in the sale. I did want to do a grass, as Daniel will be manning that post, however they weren't cooperating photographically yesterday and instead Clematis cirrhosa, aka early clematis or winter-flowering clematis, caught my eye.

Clematis cirrhosa from the Ranunculaceae is native to the Mediterranean. This species belongs to the subgenus Montanae, which uniquely possess nodding flowers and small bracts on the pedicels. This evergreen climber can reach 8m in height on a slender, 6-ribbed stem. Flowers are solitary or paired and generally have 4 sepals that are creamy-white and can sometimes be flecked with purple markings inside and green on the exterior. The fruit is an achene (a dry indehiscent fruit) with a silky plumose tail, as seen clearly in today's photo.

Plants do well in sunny spots with moderately-draining soils. It is recommended to keep the roots cool by shading the base of the plant. During hot summers, this species may go into dormancy, but no need to panic, as when the temperature drops in autumn it will start to re-grow. To avoid a single stem and promote branching, cut back this "group one" clematis in the early summer. Any pruning should be done immediately after flowering to ensure a nice display for next year, as the new flowers grow from nodes of the previous year's shoots. Clematis can be propagated either by double leaf bud cuttings or layering in the spring, or grown by seed.

Clematis cirrhosa has been noted to have antifungal activity (see: Ali-Shtayeh, MS & SI Ghdeib. 1998. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes. Mycoses. 42:665-672). An aqueous extract made from the plants secondary metabolites was 90-100% effective in reducing colony growth of Trichophyton violaceum, a fungus that can cause scaly lesions of skin, nails, beard and scalp.

Oct 2, 2012: Clematis gouriana

Clematis gouriana

As always, catching up on work after an absence, so another brief entry today. Thank you to apasar@Flickr, who I think is from India, for sharing today's photograph via the UBC Botany Photo of the Day Flickr Pool. Much appreciated!

Clematis gouriana is native to temperate and tropical Asia, including the country of today's photograph, India. In habitat, it is found along streams, scrubs and slopes at low to mid-elevations (ref: Flora of China's entry on Clematis gouriana). Magnus Johnson's The Genus Clematis expands on the habitat: "in forests and jungles, thickets, along streams and among ruins where it covers large areas". Johnson also quotes an 1846 account by Wight in Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis: "This beautiful species flowers during the cool season. At this time, January, it is in full bloom in the jungles below Coonor, where it may be seen climbing to the tops of the highest trees completely covering them with such a profusion of white flowers as almost to conceal the tree that supports them".

The epithet gouriana is named for where the species was first discovered (at least to Western science), the ruined city of Gour.

Aug 25, 2012: Adonis pyrenaica

Adonis pyrenaica

Bryant is the author of today's article:

Thank you to beranekp@Flickr for sharing another image with us today: Adonis pyrenaica via the Botany Photo of the Day Flickr Pool. Much appreciated.

Adonis pyrenaica is a clump forming perennial native to the Pyrenees of Spain and France, and a few isolated locations in the Maritime Alps. Plants grow in moist rocky pastures and on coarse settled scree at elevations between 1300-2500m. The leaves form on stems that usually range from 20-50cm high, although their height can vary depending on local conditions. Adonis pyrenaica is one of the standouts in its native region for its large bright yellow flowers and its ability to form colonies.

Cultivating Pyrenean pheasant's eye out of its native range is challenging but can be done successfully if the proper precautions are taken. The seeds have a very short period of viability, and therefore obtaining fresh seeds is very important (which can be a difficult task - check specialist alpine gardening nurseries). Plants should be grown in moist soil that won't dry out. It is recommended that a few large rocks be placed in the bed. The roots apparently grow deeply, so deep soil must also be provided.

Aug 1, 2012: Kettle Mountain Meadows

I thought I'd add a visual coda to the series on colours in plants, since Bryant is feeling under the weather today. These photographs are from last weekend's near-solitary field-trip up to the peak of Kettle Mountain while I was attending Botany BC. As of a few weeks ago, these meadows formed part of the northeast edge of the Cascade Recreation Area, but they have now been added to E.C. Manning Provincial Park. One hopes that this might mean additional enforcement in dealing with those who despoil the meadows by driving off-trail (examples of both responsible and irresponsible use if one searches Youtube for "Whipsaw" and "Trail").

May 16, 2012: Aquilegia chrysantha

Aquilegia chrysantha

Today's photograph and write-up are both by Bryant DeRoy, the BPotD work-study student for this summer. Bryant writes:

Following the wonderful series by Katherine Van Dijk on white-flowered medicinal plants, I thought I would post something with a vibrant colour to mix things up a bit. This photo of Aquilegia chrysantha (golden columbine) was taken in the E.H. Lohbrunner Alpine Garden at the UBC Botanical Garden. Aquilegia chrysantha is a member of the Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) and is native to the southwestern USA and Chihuahua, Mexico. In the USA, the species is found in Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, as well as a a disjunction in Colorado. These herbaceous perennials are often found in shady moist canyons, usually in association with seeping water. Mature plants in typical growing conditions can range in height from 30cm to 120cm. Compared with other columbines, the inflorescence is relatively large, with the spurs projecting from the back of the corolla typically ranging from 4cm to 7cm in length.

Although Aquilegia chrysantha is known as a shade and moisture-loving plant in its native arid habitat, this species does perform well in gardening conditions outside its native range. The specimen pictured above was planted on a southwest-facing slope in full sun in Vancouver, British Columbia; mind you, "full sun" in springtime Vancouver (at the 49th parallel) is much less intense and more infrequent than full sun in the southwestern USA.

Columbine is derived from columbinus, meaning "dovelike" in Latin. Viewed from certain angles, the flowers resemble a cluster of five doves, with the petals (including the spurs) resembling the heads, necks and bodies of the 5 birds (very elongated in Aquilegia chrysantha!) and the spreading sepals imagined as wings. The genus name is derived from the Latin aquila for eagle, a reference to how the petals can resemble eagle talons. The foliage of this species is also of note for its fern-like and sometimes evergreen qualities. Once it has established, Aquilegia chrysantha will often self-sow, a potential benefit to gardeners who enjoy naturalizing plants.

Mar 26, 2012: Ranunculus triternatus

If it isn't too much to have two similar-looking buttercup family representatives in a row, here are some images from just over a week ago.

Ranunculus triternatus (syn. Ranunculus reconditus) is an almost-endemic to the Columbia Gorge area of Washington and Oregon. A single location near Elko, Nevada and another in southeastern Idaho have also been reported. However, there is little information about the latter two reports online that I can find--most seem to be derived from the Flora of North America account for Ranunculus triternatus. Two common names are in use for the species, obscure buttercup and Dalles Mountain buttercup (the latter referring to the area where it is found near in Washington and Oregon).

Most research and conservation monitoring work has been done with the Washington and Oregon populations. According to the Center for Plant Conservation, ten occurrences of Ranunculus triternatus are known in these states: "In WA, 8 occurrences known since 1987. Populations range from "100+" to "several hundred." One other occurrence was reported in 1938, but the location data is not complete. Either it cannot be re-located, or it has been extirpated (WNHP 2000). 2 occurrences are currently known in Oregon with population numbers ranging from 50 to 800 (ONHP 2000).". I suppose that puts the number of individual plants worldwide at around 3500 +/- a thousand or so. I observed about seventy in flower during my brief visit to the area on a cloudy late afternoon.

As noted by Paul Slichter on his page for Ranunculus triternatus (includes additional photos!), the species "is found primarily in fairly undisturbed grasslands or areas of mixed grasslands and sagebrush. Plants are generally found in deeper soils among bunch grasses rather than in the thinner rocky poorer soils which are frequently found on the hillsides".

Additional photographs are available via the Oregon Flora Image Project (Ranunculus triternatus) and a scan of a specimen collected by Thomas Howell is available via Oregon State University Herbarium: Ranunculus triternatus.

I also had a request from a BPotD reader to include a bit of a photographic information from time to time. For these photographs, and for most photographs of buttercup flowers, I often find it necessary to underexpose the image. A camera-metered exposure will often blow out the yellows or introduce white spots on the petals due to the petals' high reflectivity (you can see the white spotting beginning to occur on the last photo). A polarizer can also be useful, but it is perhaps more important to make the photographic attempt on a cloudy day. I had also photographed some Ranunculus occidentalis this day, but I've thrown away most of those images because they were taken in the sun and no detail was left in the flower petals (I kept a couple for reference to remind me that it was out in bloom in the region on that date).

Mar 23, 2012: Ficaria verna

Ficaria verna

ganglionn@Flickr (aka Adem) from Turkey contributes another photograph to Botany Photo of the Day today (via the BPotD Flickr Pool): Ficaria verna (Ranunculus ficaria is a synonym). Thank you!

Ficaria verna is known commonly in English as fig buttercup or lesser celandine. It is native to much of Europe, western Asia and northern Africa. In North America, where it was introduced as an ornamental plant, it has become an invasive of floodplain forests and some upland sites on the east and west sides of the continent. It is one of the earliest plants to sprout, bloom and seed in the spring (verna means "spring"). The species also vegetatively propagates through bulblets and tubers, permitting it to form dense mats. When mass carpets are formed, it suppresses other (typically native) plants, presumably through shading and / or nutrient uptake.

Aug 5, 2011: Enemion hallii

I was fortunate last week to join Ed Alverson of The Nature Conservancy and Tanya Harvey (and her husband Jim), author of the in-development Mountain Plants of the Western Cascades of Oregon and Where to Find Them on a hike in the Table Rock Wilderness (southeast of Portland, Oregon). I was keen to see the species featured today, Enemion hallii. Tanya had seen it in the area previously, which she detailed on her weblog, Plants and Places: Rock-hopping at Table Rock Wilderness. Given that most plants have had late flowering dates this year in our bioregion and given that the plants of Enemion hallii were well in-bloom on July 22 of last year, we thought we'd be certain of finding Enemion hallii in bloom on July 29. Not so. Hours of searching for plants in bloom at the same elevation Tanya encountered them last year were all for naught, though budding plants were found. Descending the mountain, several more local populations were newly encountered, but none of these were any further along. Finally, after cameras were put away and some of us were preparing to leave, the ever-tenacious Ed found 3 plants in bloom, within 75m of where the vehicles were parked. Tanya goes into more detail on the search in her weblog posting: The Quest for Enemion Flowers at Table Rock.

Unlike the diminutive Enemion stipitatum featured earlier this year, Enemion hallii (or Willamette rue-anemone) is a robust perennial, sometimes attaining 85cm or so in height. As the Flora of North America notes, it is a species of "moist woods and streambanks", which is generally where we observed the populations, though the higher-elevation plants were growing in a north-facing talus slope, where the combination of shade and cool temperatures (and perhaps seeping water under the boulders?) provided sufficient conditions. I had never previously seen Oplopanax horridus growing amongst boulders, so I suspect cool, wet soil was available.

Enemion hallii is endemic to southwest Washington and northwest Oregon, with the exception of one disjunct population in the Siskiyous of southwest Oregon.

Jun 24, 2011: Clematis occidentalis var. grosseserrata

Last in the series on the buttercup family and the last brief entry (for at least a couple weeks):

Clematis occidentalis var. grosseserrata, or western blue virginsbower, is restricted to western North America whereas a second variety, var. occidentalis is only found in eastern North America. A third variety, Clematis occidentalis var. dissecta occurs only in the Wenatchee Mountains and adjacent ranges in Washington state.

These photographs were taken the first time I encountered the species in the wild, sometime in early to mid-June.

Jun 23, 2011: Anemone canadensis

Anemone canadensis

Second-last in the series on the Ranunculaceae, but again with a brief entry:

Anemone canadensis, or the Canada anemone, is widespread across much of North America (though I would say it is more prevalent in eastern North America). According to the Flora of North America, Anemone canadensis can be found in "damp thickets, meadows, wet prairies, lake shores, streamsides, clearings, occasionally swampy areas". I think I've encountered it in almost all of those habitats -- in this case, riverside in early June.

Jun 22, 2011: Delphinium distichum

Delphinium distichum

Continuing with the series on Ranunculaceae combined with brief entries:

Delphinium distichum, commonly known as meadow larkspur or strict larkspur, is strictly western North American in distribution. This photograph from mid-July was taken among a population of several thousand individuals. It is a species of wet meadows, which ticks also apparently enjoy--this was one of the few places during that trip where I attracted a couple of the parasites.

Jun 21, 2011: Aconitum columbianum subsp. columbianum

Aconitum columbianum

Continuing the series on the Ranunculaceae, or buttercup family, here is another brief entry:

This photograph of Aconitum columbianum was taken in mid-July in northern Washington. Columbian monkshood or western monkshood is primarily western North American, though disjunct populations occur in New York, Wisconsin and Ohio. Like all aconites, it is quite poisonous.

Jun 20, 2011: Aquilegia brevistyla

Aquilegia brevistyla

I'm away this week, so only brief entries with the photographs.

To start a small series on Ranunculaceae, or the buttercup family, I've chosen this native of northern North America, Aquilegia brevistyla or blue columbine. It has a continuous distribution throughout much of Canada and Alaska from Ontario west, but also has disjunct populations occurring in South Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. This photograph was taken in mid-June in open woods along the roadside near Chetwynd, British Columbia.

May 5, 2011: Thalictrum thalictroides

Thalictrum thalictroides

Claire is the author of today's entry:

Marie Viljoen (M Viljoen@Flickr | Marie's blog) from Brooklyn, NY, provided this photograph of Thalictrum thalictroides, taken in early April. Thank you again, Marie!

Thalictrum thalictroides, or rue-anemone, is a native of the eastern USA, found from the Great Lakes to northern Florida, and west as far as Oklahoma. Originally, Thalictrum thalictroides was named as Anemone thalictroides by Linnaeus. In 1839, Édouard Spach placed it in a genus all to its own - Anemonella (a name that persists in most modern references). Spach asserted that its tuberous roots and umbelliform inflorescence were a few of the characters that separated it from Anemone. The species was later redescribed by Boivin and Eames and placed in Thalictrum, which modern molecular work also supports. It is easy to understand, however, why Linnaeus originally thought Anemone, with its flowers on plants to 20cm tall appearing much like petite anemones. Thalictrum thalictroides is an early spring bloomer, and the rust-coloured leaves at emergence will eventually turn green towards the start of summer.

Apr 12, 2011: Anemone pratensis

Anemone pratensis

Preparing for the launch of the redesigned web site has been taking all of my work time and more, so apologies about the too-seldom BPotD entries (particularly since it's spring in many places). As you may note, the www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org web site name is no more, and everything has been moved over to www.botanicalgarden.ubc.ca domain. No links to the old site name should be broken, however -- it should be a seamless transition. In anticipation of upgrading the BPotD software to the latest version for the redesign, the "On This Day" feature has been removed as it is not available for that version. However, I've plans to replace it with "date tags", so if you click on "april-12" in the tag list below the recent entry, you should get the entries from April 12 in all years. Also, should I find a suitable student this summer, one of his/her tasks will be to update older entries to current standards (should mean overall speed and search-by-tag improvements for plant families).

On to today's entry, written by Claire:

beranekp@Flickr from Teplice, Czech Republic, posted this image of Anemone pratensis (syn. Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica) via the BPotD Flickr Group Pool. Much appreciated beranekp!

Daniel, on nomenclature/classification for this taxon: as noted in this entry, the evidence seems to suggest that all Pulsatilla species should be moved into Anemone. For a discussion on the topic, see the Flora of North America entry for Anemone and the current determination of Anemone pratensis by the systematic botanists at the US Agricultural Research Service. That said, I don't think anyone has published the name Anemone pratensis subsp. bohemica yet, so I couldn't use that for today's entry, though this should be considered as such.

Claire continues: Members of the Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), pasque flowers are a common sight in meadows throughout the world. If considered as Pulsatilla instead of the larger Anemone, there would be about 33 species in the genus. Anemone pratensis is distributed over a broad range of Europe, from as far north as Norway to Bulgaria at its southern limits. The species survives altitudes up to 2100 meters, but it can also be found near sea level. There are four named subspecies of Pulsatilla pratensis (Daniel: see above re: taxonomy): subsp. pratensis, subsp. bohemica, subsp. hungarica (endemic to Hungary), and subsp. nigricans. Subspecies bohemica is an endangered plant in the Bohemian region of the Czech Republic.

All subtaxa of Anemone pratensis are extremely toxic. Somehow utilized in folk medicine for treating eczema, gout and rheumatis, the species can also cause skin infections or affect the central nervous system.

If you're looking to cultivate this perennial, it tends to flower between March and May, and the flowers perched on to-15cm tall stems are a spring favourite of bees. In the summer, plants spread their fluffy achenes with the help of wind.

A nature photography site in Czech has additional photographs: Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica. More information on Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica can also be found through Botany.cz (I use translating tools to read these pages).

Mar 2, 2011: Enemion stipitatum

Today's photographs wouldn't have been possible without the help of several people from Oregon, especially Aaron Liston and Linda Hardison of Oregon State University and Ed Alverson of The Nature Conservancy. Enemion is a genus I am interested in for a possible research project, so it was helpful to see some of the plants growing in their "natural" environment.

Enemion stipitatum (PDF), or Siskiyou rue-anemone / dwarf false rue anemone / western isopyrum, is considered a sensitive species by the Oregon Flora Project. This necessitated extra care when photographing these extremely small plants to minimize disturbance. Fortunately for photographing, almost all of the plants I observed in this area (the northernmost known population of the species, I think) grew within the canopy drip-zone of a single large Acer macrophyllum, so I could photograph the plants on the edge of the zone without inadvertently damaging other plants by resting on the ground beyond the drip zone. Unfortunately for the plants, most of them grow within the canopy drip-zone of a large Acer macrophyllum, making me wonder about the long-term survivability of the population once the maple dies.

I wrote "natural" environment earlier. As you can tell from the third photograph, these are growing in what is a mowed lawn, though it isn't mowed in the early spring when Enemion stipitatum is in flower. This last photograph was also included to give you an idea of scale (the plants are tiny!) -- three plants are in flower in this image, with a couple dozen other plants only showing foliage.

Enemion consists of 6 species; the widespread Enemion biternatum in eastern North America, the also-widespread Enemion raddeanum of China, Japan, Korea and far east Russia, and 4 western North American locally endemic species. One of those of particular interest to British Columbian readers is Enemion savilei, a species only found in BC. Enemion stipitatum, the most delicate and tiny of the 6 species, is found only in California and Oregon, typically in shaded or moist forests.

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